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Capital: Tokyo

Population: 127,960,000 (2011 estimate)

Location: East Asia

Japan is situated in northeastern Asia between the North Pacific and the Sea of Japan. The area of Japan is 377,873 square kilometers, nearly equivalent to Germany and Switzerland combined or slightly smaller than California. Japan consists of four major islands, surrounded by more than 4,000 smaller islands.
Japan's population is over 126 million. Most Japanese reside in densely populated urban areas. Japan's capital city is Tokyo. The population of the Tokyo Metropolitan Area including the city, some of its suburbs and the surrounding area is approximately 12 million.
The Japanese are proud of their four seasons (and an astonishing number of them are firmly convinced that the phenomenon is unique to Japan). Japan is an island country stretching over 2,000 kilometers from north to south. Northern Japan is in the subarctic climatic zone while Southern Japan is in the subtropical zone. What's more, the greater part of the Japanese landmass is made up of mountains.
Japan's topographical features include coastlines with varied scenery, towering mountains, which are very often volcanic and twisted valleys that invite visitors into the mysterious world of nature.
Japan's mountains, together with the adjoining highlands, form beautiful landscapes colored with diverse expressions, which change with each of the four seasons. Mt. Fuji and many other mountains of Japan are objects of worship. Both designated as World Heritage Sites, Shirakami-Sanchi in northern Japan is famous for its primeval beech forests, while Yakushima in southern Japan is well-known for its primeval subtropical forests and gigantic trees.
The main characteristic of the world heritage sites in Japan is that many of them are supported by the country's diverse natural environment and its climate with four seasons, for which there are few equals in the world. There are also sites such as the Atomic Bomb Dome (Hiroshima Peace Memorial), which remind us of the negative legacy that should never be forgotten. Among the sites of historical cultural heritage, there are many buildings influenced by the unique sensitivities of the Japanese people, and in experiencing the precision and the dynamic design, we obtain great insight into the mindset of the Japanese people and the roots of their culture. 
There is only one official language spoken in Japan, which is of course Japanese. However, many Japanese are able to understand English to a certain extent since English is the foreign language that everyone must learn as part of compulsory education.